Admission & Exams


MBBS Professional examination is aimed at “to assess skills and knowledge acquired by students through class-room, field-work, and laboratory-work and bed side clinical practice” and “can be in the form of written examination, laboratory work or clinical assignment”. It should be “verifiable and transparent”.

A. PANEL OF EXAMINERS: While preparing the panel of examiners, Chairman, Board of examination shall ensure/note that:

  1. No person shall be appointed as an examiner in any of the subjects of the professional examination leading to and including the final professional examinations for the award of the MBBS degree unless he has taken at least five years previously, a doctors degree of a recognized University or an equivalent qualification in the particular subject as per recommendation of the Council on teachers’ eligibility qualifications and has had at least five years of total teaching experience in the subject concerned in a college affiliated to a recognized University at a faculty position.
  2. There shall be at least four examiners for 100 students, out of whom not less than 50% must be external examiners, the senior most internal examiner will act as the Chairman and coordinator of the whole examination programme so that uniformity in the matter of assessment of candidates is maintained.
  3. Nonmedical scientists engaged in the teaching of medical students as whole time teachers, may be appointed examiners in their concerned subjects provided they possess requisite doctorate qualification and five years teaching experience of medical students after obtaining their postgraduate qualification. Provided further that the 50% of the examiners (Internal & External) are from the medical qualification stream.
  4. The internal examiner in a subject shall not accept external examiner ship for a college from which external examiner is appointed in his subject.
  5. External examiners shall rotate at an interval of 2 years.
  6. There shall be a Chairman of the Board of paper-setters who shall be an internal examiner and shall moderate the question.
  7. Except Head of the department of subject concerned in a college/ institution, all other with the rank of Associate Professor or equivalent and above with requisite qualification and experience shall be appointed internal examiners by rotation in their subjects; provided that where there are no posts of Associate Professor, then an Assistant Professor of 5 years standing as Assistant Professor may be considered for appointment as examiner.
  8. Chairman, BoS shall ensure correct address, e-mail and mobile phone number of examiners before communicating the panel to the Dean.
  9. For practical examination, external examiner shall not be from the same University and preferably be from outside the state.
  10. The board shall propose at least five names of external examiners for practical, so that the other examiner may be called in case the approved examiner is not available on the date of examination. HOD shall ensure that examiner for practical is informed well in time.
  11. BoS shall also propose the internal faculty to serve as internal examiner for practical examination. This will be in addition to external examiner appointed for practical examination.
  12. The panel of examiners shall be approved by the competent authority or a person nominated by him or by the Dean with prior approval of the competent authority.

B. Setting of question papers for Professional examination:

  1. HODs may be asked to conduct Board of Studies (BoS) meetings for the professional examination at the earliest and submit the panel to the Dean at least three months before the scheduled examination.
  2. The cut off dates for various professional exams will be MBBS Ist Professional Examination – 15th April MBBS IInd, III Part –I & III Part II Professional Examination-1st September The panel for regular and supplementary examinations for a particular year may be got prepared and recommended by the BoS in one sitting. This will give ample time to Dean to get the Q papers prepared on time and allow sufficient time for moderation and printing.
    The panel communicated to the Dean of the Faculty may be got approved by Dean by the competent authority by Ist  May for First Professional and Ist  October for IInd, III Part I & III Part II  examination. Competent authority may like to authorize the Dean for appointing the examiners or nominate a person to assist Dean in the process. Whichever is the case, approval may be obtained well in time and requests to set question papers may be communicated to the examiner by 2nd  week of May ( Ist professional ) and 2nd  week of October for IInd, III Part I & III Part II  examination.
  3. Question papers will be set by external examiners appointed by competent authority. Dean of HIMSR should ensure that an examiner is not asked to set question papers for more than two consecutive years

C. Moderation and printing:

  1. Head of the Department will moderate the question papers received from external examiners before sending the question paper for printing. This should be at least 2 weeks before the examination. He/ she will ensure that all questions fall within the prescribed syllabus. He/ she will be responsible for ensuring uniformity in format. The format of question paper and the distribution of marks in each subject shall be as per the rules of graduate medical education of Medical Council of India. Only 30% of the paper can be changed during moderation.
  2. The moderated question papers shall be typed in the examination cell by the person appointed by the dean for the same. It will be printed through the office of the controller of Examination. The printed papers shall be sealed in an envelope which will be duly signed by the persons under whose supervision the paper was printed and by the Dean of the Faculty. Dean shall be responsible for keeping the sealed envelopes in his/her custody and make it available to the Superintendent / Dy. Superintendent of examination on the day of examination for that paper.


  1. Theory papers will be prepared by the external examiners as prescribed. Nature of questions will be short answer type/objective type and marks for each part indicated separately. Question papers should preferably be of short structure/objective type.
  2. Practical’s/clinicals will be conducted in the laboratories or hospital wards. The objective will be to assess proficiency in skills, conduct of experiment, interpretation of data and logical conclusion. Clinical cases should preferably include common diseases and not esoteric syndromes or rare disorders. Emphasis should be on candidate’s capability in eliciting physical signs and their interpretation. Clinical cases/practicals shall take into account common diseases which the student is likely to come in contact in practice. Rare cases/obscure syndromes, long cases of neurology shall not be put for final examination.”


There shall be one main examination in a year and a supplementary to be held not later than 6 months after the publication of its results.
Universities Examinations shall be held as under:-

a) First Professional:- In the second Semester of Phase 1 training, in the subjects of Anatomy, Physiology and Bio-Chemistry.
b) Second Professional:- In the Fifth Semester of Phase II training, in the subjects of Pathology, Microbiology, Pharmacy and Forensic Medicine.
c) Third Professional: – Part 1– in the Seventh Semester of Phase III, in the subjects of Ophthalmology, Oto-rhino-laryngology and Community Medicine.
c) Third Professional:- Part II-(Final Professional) – At the end of Phase III training in the subjects of Medicine, Surgery, Obstetrics & Gynecology and Pediatrics.
Results of all university examinations shall be declared before the start of teaching for next semester.

i) Passing in Ist Professional is compulsory before proceeding to Phase II training.
ii) A student who fails in the IInd professional examination, should not be allowed to appear IIIrd Professional Part I examination unless he passes all subjects of IInd Professional examination.
ii) Passing in IIIrd Professional (Part-1) is compulsory for being eligible for IIIrd Professional (Part II) examination


In each theory as well as practical course 80% marks shall be for annual University examination and 20 % marks for internal assessment. The distribution of marks for each of the four professional examinations will be as detailed below.

a) First Professional examination: (Pre-clinical Subject):-

i) Anatomy:
Theory – Two papers of 50 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
100 marks
Oral (Viva) 20 marks
Practical 40 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 20 + Practical 20) 40 marks
Total 200 marks
ii) Physiology including Biophysics
Theory – Two Papers of 50 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
100 marks
Oral (Viva) 20 marks
Practical 40 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 20 + Practical 20) 40 marks
Total 200 marks
iii) Biochemistry
Theory – Two Papers of 50 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
100 marks
Oral (Viva) 20 marks
Practical 40 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 20 + Practical 20) 40 marks
Total 200 marks

Pass: In each of the subject, a candidate must obtain 50% in aggregate with a minimum of 50% in theory including orals and minimum of 50% in practical.

b) Second Professional Examination: (Para-Clinical Subject):

i) Pathology:
Theory – Two Papers of 40 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
80 marks
Oral (Viva) 15 marks
Practical 25 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 15 + Practical 15) 30 marks
Total 150 marks
ii) Microbiology:
Theory – Two Papers of 40 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
80 marks
Oral (Viva) 15 marks
Practical 25 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 15 + Practical 15) 30 marks
Total 150 marks
Theory – Two Papers of 40 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
80 marks
Oral (Viva) 15 marks
Practical 25 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 15 + Practical 15) 30 marks
Total 150 marks
iv) Forensic Medicine:
Theory – One Paper of 40 marks each
(One applied question of 10 marks in each paper)
80 marks
Oral (Viva) 10 marks
Practical/Clinical 30 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 10 + Practical 10) 20 marks
Total 100 marks

Pass: In each of the subject, a candidate must obtain 50% in aggregate with a minimum of 50% in theory including orals and minimum of 50% in practical/clinical.

b) Second Professional Examination: (Para-Clinical Subject):

c) Third Professional (Clinical subjects):
Part – I : To be conducted during end period of seventh semester

i) Ophthalmology:
Theory: One paper
(Should contain one question on pre-clinical and Para-clinical aspects, of 10 marks)
40 marks
Oral (Viva) 15 marks
Clinical 30 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 10 + Practical 10) 30 marks
Total 100 marks
ii) Oto – Rhino – Laryngology:
Theory: One paper
(Should contain one question on pre-clinical and Para-clinical aspects, of 10 marks)
40 marks
Oral (Viva) 15 marks
Clinical 30 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 10 + Practical 10) 30 marks
Total 100 marks
iii) Community Medicine including Humanities:
Theory: Two papers 60 marks each
(Including problem solving, applied aspects of management at primary level including essential drugs, occupational (agro based) diseases, rehabilitation and social aspects of community).
120 marks
Oral (Viva) 10 marks
Practical/ Project evaluation 30 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 20 + Practical 20) 40 marks
Total 200 marks

Pass: In each of the subject, a candidate must obtain 50% in aggregate with a minimum of 50% in theory including orals and minimum of 50% in practical/clinicals.

b) Second Professional Examination: (Para-Clinical Subject):

PART – II: To be conducted during end period of nineth semester

i) Medicine:
Two papers of 60 marks each
Paper 1 – General Medicine
Paper 2 – General Medicine (including Psychiatry, Dermatology and S.T.D.)
(Shall contain one question on basic sciences and allied subjects)
120 marks
Oral (Viva) Interpretation of X-ray, ECG etc. 20 marks
Clinical (Bed side) 100 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 30 + Practical 30) 60 marks
Total 300 marks
ii) Surgery:
Two papers of 60 marks each
Paper 1 – General Surgery (Section 1), Orthopedics (Section 2)
Paper 2 – General Surgery (including Anesthesiology, Dental diseases and Radiology)
(Shall contain one question on basic sciences and allied subjects)
120 marks
Oral(Viva) Interpretation of investigation data 20 marks
Clinical (Bed side) 100 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 30 + Practical 30) 60 marks
Total 300 marks
iii) Obstetrics and Gynecology:
Two papers of 40 marks each
Paper 1 – Obstetrics including social obstetrics.
Paper 2 – Gynecology, Family Welfare and Demography
(Shall contain one question on basic sciences and allied subjects)
80 marks
Oral (Viva) including record of delivery cases (20 + 10) 30 marks
Clinical 50 marks
Internal Assessment (Theory 20 + Practical 20) 40 marks
Total 200 marks


  1. Date sheet should be notified and displayed on the Department notice board at least 30 days before the examination.
  2. Students appearing for examination should be informed in advance, by way of notice board or putting a line in the date sheet, asking them not to bring mobile phone and any other objectionable material to the examination hall on the day of examination. If brought, such items will not be allowed in examination hall and University will not be responsible for these items in any manner.
  3. It would be ideal if date-sheet is prepared in such as way that most students give there examination at one time and one place; instead of holding examination in small rooms.
  4. The names of persons proposed by the Dean to act as Superintendent / Dy. Superintendent and the list of invigilators and other staff engaged in examination should reach the office of the Controller of examination at least two weeks before the commencement of examination to obtain the approval of the competent authority and notification
  5. The office of the Controller of examination shall be authorized to constitute Flying squads during the examinations to ensure check on unfair means. Approval for members of the flying squad shall be obtained from the competent authority by the CoE. Time table for raids by the Flying squads shall be prepared by the office of the undersigned in strict confidentially. Members of Flying squads shall be expected to ensure complete secrecy.


  1. The answer sheets will be handed over to all the four examiners during practical examination and examiners are expected to check and submit the compiled result on the last day of the practical examination.


  • As per UGC guidelines on Academic Reforms in Universities 2009, “answer-books or sheets are to be ‘encoded’ (before being passed on to examiner / evaluator and decoded (before tabulation)”.


  1. In tune with the UGC guidelines stating that “The candidates’ answer-sheets need to be assigned confidential codes, that is, they are encoded, before being passed on for evaluation/assessment”, coders and decoders will be appointed for all papers.
  2. All coding/decoding and tabulation work shall be done by the teachers whose names are pre-approved by the competent authority. The pool of teachers for this work shall be prepared by the CoE. Dean of the Faculties shall be required to submit the names of teachers who may be assigned these works.
  3. Marks will be got entered into the system by two independent tabulators, already got approved by the competent authority, under the overall supervision of the Dean. Tabulators will be assisted by the System analyst and the Dealing Assistant responsible for that Faculty.


Deans/Heads shall ensure that the internal assessment (IA) is continuous and, as circulated earlier by this office, consist of the following components: Internal Assessment:

  1. It shall be based on day to day assessment (see note), evaluation of students assignment, preparation for seminar, clinical case presentation etc.
  2. Regular periodical examinations shall be conducted throughout the course. The question of number of examinations is left to the institution.
  3. Weightage for the internal assessment shall be 20% of the total marks in each subject.
  4. Student must secure at least 35% marks of the total marks fixed for internal assessment in a particular subject in order to be eligible to appear in final University examination of that subject.
  5. v) The answer books of the sessional tests shall be shown to the students and taken back with their signatures on these. The sessional test answer books shall be retained in the department till the end of the academic term.
  6. vi) A regular record of the marks for sessional tests conducted in an academic year shall be maintained by the teacher concerned/ Head of Department for each student


Attendance 75% attendance in a subject for appearing in the examination is compulsory inclusive of attendance in non-lecture teaching i.e. seminars, group discussions, tutorials, demonstrations, practical’s, hospital (Territory Secondary, Primary) posting and bed side clinical etc.

  1. All students must attend every lecture and practical class. However to account for late joining or other such contingencies, the attendance requirement for appearing in the examination shall be a minimum of 75% of the classes actually held.
  2. In order to maintain the attendance record of a particular course, a roll call will be taken by the teachers in every scheduled lecture and scheduled practical class (every scheduled practical class will count as one attendance unit, irrespective of the number of contact hours).
  3. The teacher in-charge will consolidate the attendance record for the lectures and practical’s for each term and submit it to the dean’s office for uploading on the website.
  4. d) The statements of attendance of students shall be displayed on the Department notice board at the close of each semester given in the Academic calendar. A copy of the same shall be sent to the Head of Department/ Office of the Dean of Faculty for record. Notice displayed on notice board shall be deemed to be a proper notification and no individual notice shall be sent to students.
  5. The students with less than 75% attendance of the lectures and practical’s separately in each subject/ course in an academic year shall be detained from appearing in the Annual University examination. The Dean of Faculty concerned may consider application for the condonation of attendance on account of any other extenuating circumstances, provided the request is duly supported by documentary evidence.


  1. Student should apply for re-totaling within 2weeks of declaration of results.
  2. Re-totaling in Practical Examination is not applicable.
  3. Fee for Re-totaling is Rs.2500/-per paper.
  4. Application for Re-totaling received after 15 days from the date of issue of result shall not entertained.


Grace Marks up to a maximum of five marks may be awarded in theory to a student who has failed in theory only in one subject but has passed in all other subject. This will not be applicable to students appearing in supplementary examination.

Guidelines For Internship Training Programme


Internship is a phase of training wherein a graduate is expected to learn methods/modalities to conduct actual practice of medical and health care and acquire skills under supervision so that he/she may become capable of functioning independently.

At the end of the Internship Training, the student shall be able to:

  1. Diagnose and manage clinically common disease conditions encountered in Clinical practice and make timely decision for referral to higher level.
  2. Use discretely essential drugs, infusions blood or its substitutes and laboratory services.
  3. Manage all type of emergencies – Medical, Surgical Obstetric, Neonatal and Paediatric.
  4. Demonstrate skills in monitoring of the National Health Programmes and Schemes, oriented to provide promotive, preventive, curative and rehabilitative health care services to the community.
  5. Develop leadership qualities to function effectively as a leader of the health team organized to deliver the health and family welfare services in existing socio-economic, political and cultural environment.
  6. Render services to chronically sick and disabled (both physical and mental) and to communicate effectively with patient and the community.
  7. Acquire adequate communication skills for proper interactions with:
    1. Patients and Attendants
    2. Seniors
    3. Peer Group
    4. Other paramedical workers
  8. Acquire ability, to judiciously select appropriate investigation as per clinical situation, properly collect samples for analysis and, to interpret common clinical and laboratory data.
  9. To fill appropriate hospital forms and certificates.
  10. To carry out day to day ward procedures and treatment.


As per Medical Council of India, vide notification No. MCI-7(1)/2008-Med.Miswc/3309 dated 22 November, 2008, gazette Notification No. MCI-34(41)2008–Med./29527 dated 20.10.2008.


Community Medicine 2 Months
Medicine including 15 days of Psychiatry 2 Months
Surgery including 15 days Anaesthesia
Obstt./Gynae. including Family Welfare Planning 2 Months
Paediatrics 1 Month
Orthopaedics including PMR 1 Month
ENT 15 days
Ophthalmology 15 days
Casualty 15 days
Elective Postings 15 days


Subjects for Elective posting will be as follows:

  • Dermatology and Sexually Transmitted Diseases
  • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
  • Radio-Diagnosis
  • Forensic Medicine
  • Blood Bank
  • Psychiatry


  1. Every student will be required after passing the final MBBS examination to undergo Compulsory Rotational Internship to the satisfaction of the College Authorities and Jamia Hamdard for a period of 12 months so as to be eligible for the award of the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery (MBBS) and full registration.
  2. All parts of the Internship shall be done in the institution from where the student has been enrolled for his MBBS studies.
  3. No Intern will be permitted to do externship in hospitals within the NCR of Delhi.
  4. In case a student desires to do internship from other institutions within India, in any institution/hospital recognized by MCI for the purpose, permission must be taken from the Institute as well as Jamia Hamdard at the beginning of the internship programme. However, permission may be granted by the University at any time considering the exigencies and merit on case to case basis.
  5. The College shall issue a provisional MBBS pass certificate on passing the final examination.


  1. The Intern shall participate as a team member in total health care programme of an individual including appropriate follow-up and social rehabilitation. The Intern will work as a Doctor undergoing training and is expected to work for the well-being of the patients under his case.
  2. The Intern shall be entrusted with clinical responsibilities under supervision of a faculty member. He/she shall not work independently.
  3. Interns will not issue a Medical Certificate or a Death Certificate or a medico legal document under his/her signature.
  4. Intern will participate in total patient care by maintaining patients records, participating in ward rounds and other academic activities of the department posted.
  5. Notwithstanding any of the above, the Intern will be required to carry out any work assigned by the Unit In charge during exigencies.


  1. Interns shall maintain a Logbook which shall be verified and certified by the Unit In charge under whom he works, during his internship period.
  2. Responsibility of safe custody of the Logbook rests on the Intern.
  3. The Logbook provides proforma in various specialties which indicates skills to be acquired during the specific posting.
  4. All leave taken must be entered and signed under seal by Head of the Departments/Units.
  5. An objective evaluation of his knowledge, skill and attitude during the training will be recorded by the Unit In charge/Centre In charge and a score of 0 to 5 would be used for scoring. A satisfactory completion shall be a score of 3 or above.
    1. Proficiency of knowledge required for each case Score 0-5
    2. The level of competence attained to manage cases in relation to:
      1. Management of cases independently
      2. Assistance in procedures
      3. Observation of Procedures  Score 0-5
  6. Responsibility, punctuality, work up of case, involvement in treatment, follow-up reports. Score 0-5
  7. Capacity to work in a team (Behaviour with colleagues, nursing staff and relationship with paramedical)      Score 0-5
  8. Initiative participation in discussion, research aptitude Score 0-5
Very Poor Poor Below Average Average Good Very Good and above
0 1 2 3 4 5


To avoid any unnecessary delay in clearance, a signed ‘No Dues’ Certificate should be taken by the Intern at the end of each posting from the concerned department.


 An Intern must ordinarily complete his/her Internship during the scheduled period  of 1st January to 31st December for Regular Batch and 1st April to 31st March (next year) for the Supplementary Batch.

Stipulation for repeat posting/ extension:

  • Unsatisfactory performance.
  • Prolonged illness, Medical Certificate must be validated by a Medical Board set up by the Institution, where rotatory internship is being undertaken.
  • No Hostel accommodation shall be provided for the extension period.
  • The intern will not be paid stipend during the period of extension


 Ordinarily rotatory internship must be undertaken in the institution where the  student has enrolled.  However, a student can do internship in MCI approved  hospital/institution for which the following guidelines may be followed:


    • A student must apply for permission to do internship outside Delhi. Before considering the student’s application to do internship in another hospital / medical college he/she will be required to produce the following documents:
      1. Permission from the institution where the student wishes to do internship
      2. Certificate from MCI that the hospital/institution is recognized for undergoing internship training
      3. Permission from HIMSR and Jamia Hamdard
      4. Documentary proof of the reason for doing internship from outside Delhi
    • All students intending to do internship outside must submit duly completed application to the concerned authorities at the beginning of the internship programme not later 15th January.
    • Permission for Externship will be granted by a committee consisting of Incharge, Internship Training and Heads of the following Departments:
    • Medicine
    • Surgery
    • Obstetrics and Gynaecology
    • Community Medicine

This committee will be chaired by Dean, HIMSR

  • No externship can be for less than two months.
  • Rotatory Internship in Community Medicine must be completed within HIMSR.
  • A certificate of satisfactory completion of training should be submitted to the Institution duly signed and stamped by the administrative authorities of the Hospital/District Centre, where the student has undergone externship.
  • Externship in multiple institutes will not be permitted.
  • Externship once done in a particular institution/hospital recognized by MCI is not repeated in parent institution. Only the records of satisfactory completion of training, duly certified Medical Office alongwith assessment report/evaluation report, meeting the objectives of training are submitted, so that once externship is done outside the institution, will not be repeated there.


 The prime responsibility and commitment of the institution is to train its own Under-graduates during their rotatory internship period. However, students from outside may apply for rotatory internship training to Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences & Research.-

 Ordinarily the capacity and infrastructure of the institutions is to train only the number of students that they have enrolled. The students may apply if there is a clear cut vacancy in the institution provided the following certificates / documents are produced:

  1. Application of the students giving reasons to do internship and documentary proof thereof.
  2. No Objection Certificate from his/her parent institution clearly stating that institution is recognized by MCI and that during the course of his/her training from admission to his/her passing out, the college was not derecognized by MCI at any time.
  3. Permission of the University to which the above college is affiliated.
    1. Certificate from MCI that Medical College/Institution where the student is at present studying has been recognized by the MCI from the year the student was admitted in that institution to the year of his/her passing out.
    2. Certificate of provisional registration by MCI / State Medical Council.
    3. Certificate of good character and conduct of the student from the parent college/institution.
    4. Permission of HIMSR and Jamia Hamdard
    5. Permission of concerned State Government.
    6. An undertaking that the student is prepared to do internship without any pay, stipend or honorarium:
      • That he/she would follow the Internship Programme of the Jamia Hamadard
      • That he/she would maintain good conduct, discipline and decorum of the institution and the authorities of the University have the right to expel him/her on misconduct, indiscipline and unsatisfactory work.

Vacancy Position: Vacancy position can be determined only after 1st April when results of Supplementary Examinations have been announced.  No outside candidate will be accepted for internship beyond the number of students enrolled in HIMSR.

How to select: If there is more than one applicant wishing to do internship at the institutions, they will be selected strictly on the basis of merit.  While making the list, consideration will be given to all the Professional Examinations and from the total marks 5% marks deducted for each additional attempt.  Candidates who did not avail the chance of University Examination when it was due should not be considered a failure in that subject/s and it should be counted as first attempt and marks should not be deducted.  Also, 5% extra marks will be allotted for distinction or medal in any subject.

When to apply: All applications of internship alongwith relevant documents should be made between 1st to 15th April to HIMSR.


The total number of casual leaves (including sick leave etc.) allowed for the year is 12 days (maximum).

For any leave / absence exceeding the above, Interns will be required to repeat posting in that department

Leave must be entered in the internship booklet and signed by the unit in-charge & Head of the Department.